Monitoring Peripheral Intravenous Catheters Complications in Pediatric Patients in Erbil City/Iraq


  • Norhan Zeki Shaker Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.



Quality of Care, Peripheral Intravenous Catheters, Complications


Backgrounds and Objectives: Although most problems of peripheral intravenous catheterization are inconsiderable and easily treated, some are dangerous and require rapid management. This study aimed to explore peripheral intravenous catheter-related complications and the quality of nursing care for dressing sites of peripheral intravenous catheterization among the pediatric population.
Methods: The study was conducted at Raparin Teaching Hospital for Children inpatient units in Erbil City/Iraq, using an observational study design. A purposive sample from 296 hospitalized children with peripheral intravenous catheterization was chosen for this study. The data was collected using a special check list (PIVC-miniQ) developed for checking the signs and symptoms and the quality of care for the catheter insertion site. Furthermore, the obtained data on peripheral intravenous catheterization problems was evaluated for exploring grades of phlebitis using the Phlebitis Scale developed by the Infusion Nursing Society in 2011. The data was processed and analyzed using SPSS using descriptive statistical analysis (frequency, percentage) and inferential statistical tests (Chi-squared, contingency coefficient). The probability value of ≤0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.
Results: Most (82.4%) of patients were recruited in the emergency unit, with the highest percentage (36.8%) were toddlers. More than two-thirds (72.3%) of participants were assessed within the first peripheral catheter insertion. Regarding overall grades of patients’ peripheral intravenous catheterization complications (PIVC), less than a quarter (21.6%) were within the first grade, indicating being at risk for complications, and 6.8% were within the second grade, indicating slight phlebitis. Regarding the nursing care for PIVC site care, 62.5% of participants received fair care, and 22.3% received poor care.
Conclusions: A quarter of observed children were at risk for having phlebitis and less than ten percent had slight phlebitis. About a quarter of patients received poor nursing care for the catheter insertion site. Most participants have not a documentation of the peripheral intravenous 


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Author Biography

Norhan Zeki Shaker, Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.




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How to Cite

Shaker NZ. Monitoring Peripheral Intravenous Catheters Complications in Pediatric Patients in Erbil City/Iraq. Erbil j. nurs. midwifery [Internet]. 2022 Nov. 30 [cited 2024 Apr. 14];5(2):105-13. Available from:



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