Prevalence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Potentially Traumatic Events among Adolescents in Erbil City

Authors

  • Raveen Ismael Abdullah Duhok General Directorate of Health, Azadi Heart Surgery Center, Duhok, Iraq.
  • Norhan Zeki Shaker Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15218/ejnm.2019.08

Keywords:

Adolescent, Child Maltreatment, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders, Students, Schools

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Many children and teenagers throughout lifetime maybe ex-pose to extraordinary forms of stressful and traumatic events, particularly individuals who live in countries experiencing continuous conflicts such as Iraq. Approximately one-third of traumatized adolescents might develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. The current study aimed to evaluate the types of potentially traumatic events and prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among adolescents in Erbil city.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at eleven public and private schools in Erbil City. The samples of the study were selected in three stages; the schools' selection, the class selection in the schools, and involvement of 300 students within the study. Data were collected from face-to-face interview of participants from 1st of March to 15th May 2018. Screening for post-traumatic stress disorder was done by using the post-traumatic stress disorder screening tool. The validity and reliability have been verified. Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, t-tests, and Fisher exact test was used for data analysis.
Results: Majority of participants were Kurdish, from the host community; More than half of them were males and middle in the rank within their families while the most prevalent potentially traumatic events were identified to be emotional abuse and physical abuse. Such events include betrayal and disappointment, witnessing parents fighting with each other, witnessing direct physical torturing, and physical torture. Among traumatized ado-lescents, it is predicted that about 41.7% have post-traumatic stress disorder.
Conclusions: Post-traumatic stress disorder is prevalent among adolescent students and it differs in terms of gender and type of schools. Post-traumatic stress disorder was found to be the highest percentage among females compared to males, and within public schools compared to private schools. The most prevalent potentially traumatic events among adolescents were emotional and physical trauma.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Margolies L, read PD~ 3 min. Understanding the Effects of Trauma: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) [online]. Psych Central. 2016 .Available from: https://psychcentral.com/lib/understanding-the-effects-of-trauma-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/
AlObaidi A. Psychological Trauma: Experience from Iraq. Journal of Trauma and Treatment. 2013 Nov 20;2(1):1–2.
Suliman S, Kaminer D, Seedat S, Stein D. Assessing post-traumatic stress disorder in South African adolescents: using the child and adolescent trauma survey (CATS) as a screening tool. Annals of General Psychiatry. 2005 Jan 31;4(1):2.
Gerson R, Rappaport N. Traumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Youth: Recent Research Findings on Clinical Impact, Assessment, and Treatment. Journal Adolescent Health. 2013 Feb 1;52(2):137–43.
Calitz FJW, Jongh D, J N, Horn A, Nel ML, Joubert G. Children and adolescents treated for post-traumatic stress disorder at the Free State Psychiatric Complex. South African Journal of Psychiatry. 2014 Mar;20(1):15–20.
American Psychological Association. Children and Trauma: Update for Mental Health Professionals [online]. http://www.apa.org. 2008 [cited 2018 Jul 26]. Available from: http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/children-trauma-update.aspx
Cisler JM, Amstadter AB, Begle AM, Resnick HS, Danielson CK, Saunders BE, et al. PTSD Symptoms, Potentially Traumatic Event Exposure, and Binge Drinking: A Prospective Study with a National Sample of Adolescents.Journal Of Anxiety Disorders. 2011 Oct; 25(7):978–87.
Kaminer D, Seedat S, Stein DJ. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children. Official Journal of the world Psychiatric Association. 2005 Jun;4(2):121–5.
Mouthaan J, Sijbrandij M, Reitsma JB, Gersons BPR, Olff M. Comparing Screening Instruments to Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2014 May 9 [cited 2018 Jun 24];9(5). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4016271/
Ibrahim H, Hassan CQ. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Resulting from Torture and Other Traumatic Events among Syrian Kurdish Refugees in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Frontier in Psychology. [Internet]. 2017 Feb 20 [cited 2018 Jul 28];8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316552/
Alshawi A. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Youth in Iraq, Short Systemic Review. Journal of Community Medicine and Health Care.2017 Feb 9;2(2).
Kato N, Kawata M, Pitman RK, editors. PTSD: Brain Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. 2006 edition. Tokyo: Springer; 2006. 304 p.
Al-Hadethe A, Hunt N, Thomas S, Al-Qaysi A. Prevalence of traumatic events and PTSD symptoms among secondary school students in Baghdad. European Journal of Psychotraumatology. 2014 Dec;5(1):23928.
UN OCHA. Humanitarian Response Plan [Internet]. UN OCHA; 2017 [cited 2018 Jan 10]. Available from: https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/en/operations/iraq/document/2017-iraq-humanitarian-response-plan
Rudaw. Poverty rate in Kurdistan Region quadrupled to 15 percent, official [Internet]. Rudaw. 2016 [cited 2018 May 27]. Available from: http://www.rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/281220162
Nils Womer. , Nils; Lamberty, IDP and Refugee Crises in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.Lebanon: Konrad-Adenauer-Foundation(KAS) [Assessed on: 5th Feb, 2018]. 2016. Available from: http://www.kas.de/syrien-irak/en/publications/47238/
Lancaster CL, Teeters JB, Gros DF, Back SE. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview of Evidence-Based Assessment and Treatment. Journal of Clinical Medicine[Internet]. 2016 Nov 22 [cited 2018 Aug 28];5(11). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5126802/
Charan J, Biswas T. How to Calculate Sample Size for Different Study Designs in Medical Research? Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2013;35(2):121–6.
Prins A, Bovin MJ, Smolenski DJ, Marx BP, Kimerling R, Jenkins-Guarnieri MA, et al. The Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5 (PC-PTSD-5): Development and Evaluation Within a Veteran Primary Care Sample. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2016 Oct 1;31(10):1206–11.
Regier DA, Kuhl EA, Kupfer DJ. The DSM-5: Classification and criteria changes. Official Journal of the world psychiatric Association. 2013 Jun;12(2):92.
Thabet AM, Thabet SS. Stress, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder among adolescents in the Gaza strip. Journal of trauma and critical care [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 Nov 5];1(2). Available from: http://www.alliedacademies.org/abstract/stress-trauma-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-adolescents-in-the-gaza-strip-8249.html
Gökçen C, Sahingöz M, Annagür B. Does a non-destructive earthquake cause posttraumatic stress disorder? A cross-sectional study.  European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 26;22.
Karim B, Al-Salihy Z, Karim D, Laugharne R. Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Erbil - Kurdistan .Arab Journal of Psychiatry. 2016 May;44(0):1–18.
Margolin G, Vickerman KA. Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: I. Overview and Issues. Professional Psychology Research and Practice. 2007 Dec 1;38(6):613–9.
Mohr WK. Johnson’s Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: 5 edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003. 832 p.
McLaughlin K. Posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis [Internet]. uptodate. 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 6]. Available from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-epidemiology-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-course-assessment-and-diagnosis#H802051063
Chavis S. Adolescents in Private Schools Cope Better [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2018 Nov 6]. Available from: https://psychcentral.com/news/2010/10/30/adolescents-in-private-schools-cope-better/20174.html
Lafta RK, Aziz ZS, AlObaidi A. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among Male Adolescents in Baghdad. Journal of Psychological Abnormalities. 2014 Jun 14;3(3):1–5.

Downloads

Published

2019-06-01

How to Cite

1.
Abdullah RI, Shaker NZ. Prevalence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Potentially Traumatic Events among Adolescents in Erbil City. Erbil j. nurs. midwifery [Internet]. 2019 Jun. 1 [cited 2024 May 18];2(1):60-9. Available from: https://ejnm.hmu.edu.krd/index.php/ejnm/article/view/63

Issue

Section

Original Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)