Lifestyle Factors and Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Cross-sectional Study


  • Asmaa Awni Haydar College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Muzhda Haydar Saber Department of Medical Analysis, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Tishk International University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Goran Noori Saleh Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tishk International University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Dara Abdulla Al-Banna Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tishk International University and Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Lifestyle Factors, Gastro-Esophagus Reflux Disease, Population-Based Study


Background and Objectives: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a condition characterized by heartburn and acid regurgitation without signs of oesophagal mucosal injury on one hand, and erosive oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus consequences like oesophagal cancer on the other. The aim of this study was to explore the involvement of different lifestyle-related factors in the aetiology of symptomatic GERD.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 79 patients (28 men and 51 women) aged between 20-68 years old were recruited randomly through a direct interview between January to October 2021, and they were prescribed Proton Pump Inhibitors. Prior to starting this study, the approvals had been granted by the ethics committee and oral consent was gained from the participants. A questionnaire was designed and consisted of demographic and clinical characteristics regarding GERD. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 25 for describing frequencies and percentages, followed by Chi-square and Fisher’s Exact tests as inferential statistical analysis for finding associations between variables.
Results: Among the total of 79 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, the findings indicated that more than half of the study sample (58.2%) were overweight and obese (26.6% and 31.6% respectively), and the heavy smokers made the highest percentage among smokers (19%). There was a statistically significant association between gender and smoking and BMI among GERD patients (P-value = 0.001 and < 0.001 respectively). There was a very highly significant association between BMI and heartburn and nausea and vomiting (P-value = 0.001 for both), while there was a non-significant association between BMI and chest pain, cough, and sleep pattern disturbance (P-value = 0.324, 0.558, and 0.907 respectively).
Conclusion: A higher BMI and smoking are associated with a higher likelihood of GERD symptoms.


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Author Biographies

Asmaa Awni Haydar, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Goran Noori Saleh, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tishk International University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Dara Abdulla Al-Banna, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tishk International University and Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Dara Abdulla Al-Banna has MSc degree in Medical-Surgical Adult Nursing from Hawler Medical University (PhD Student). He is an assistant lecturer of nursing at Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq. He teaches different courses including Medical-Surgical Adult Nursing Theory, Lab, and Clinic, Fundamental of Nursing, Basic Life Support (First Aid), Global Health Care, Hospital Management, Professional Ethics, Research Methodology, and Biostatistics. He has more than 15 publications. His current research work is mainly related to Stroke Rehabilitation and Health Administration research. Before pursuing the academic career, he established seven years of experience in the Nursing Care in Emergency Center, Laboratory Responsibility at Conservative department in College of Dentistry at Hawler Medical University, and the Private Clinic. His work involved in establishing the Gasha Medical Institute, Erbil, in Iraqi Kurdistan Region and International Rescue Committee IRC projects in Erbil Displacement Cumps. It has more than 20 Awards and Prices.

A Board Member of Erbil Journal of Nursing and Midwifery (EJNM)

A Reviewer in Eastern Mediterranean Journal of Health Sciences (WHO)

A Reviewer in Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems Journal (ASTESJ)



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How to Cite

Haydar AA, Saber MH, Saleh GN, Al-Banna DA. Lifestyle Factors and Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Cross-sectional Study. Erbil j. nurs. midwifery [Internet]. 2022 Nov. 30 [cited 2024 Feb. 23];5(2):98-104. Available from:



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