Premenstrual Syndrome: Presence, Knowledge, and Attitude among Female University Students


  • Kazhan Ibrahim Mahmood Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.



Premenstrual syndrome, Knowledge, Attitude, Nursing students, Iraq


Background and objectives: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is fairly high and may interfere with personal and social activities. The current study aims to identify the frequency of experiencing PMS symptoms among students, assess their knowledge and attitude towards PMS and identify their perception of whether PMS has an impact on the academic lives of female university students.

Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was applied to the current study. An online survey using Google form was conducted among female university students at the College of Nursing/Hawler Medical University. A total of 222 students participated in the current study. A questionnaire was designed to assess PMS symptoms using the criteria of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, students’ knowledge and attitude towards PMS, the impact of PMS on daily living activity and academic performance, and self-management options.

Results: The mean age (+Standard deviation) of the students was 20.77 (+1.876) years and the mean for calculated BMI of students was 22.42kg/m2. The majority of students (70.3%) had regular menstrual cycle with 86% of them having moderate amount of menstrual blood flow. More than half (53.6%) of students responded that they experience PMS, and 34.7% responded that they do not experience PMS. More than half (52.3%) of students obtained good knowledge score and positive attitude towards PMS. Around three quarters (70.3%) of the students responded that PMS disturbs normal routine. Getting plenty of sleep (75.2%), taking hot drinks (72.1%), and applying hot pack (59.5) were among the commonest ways of PMS self-management by students. The data demonstrated no statistically significant association between students’ knowledge score and their stage of study, family history of PMS, regularity of menstruation, experiencing PMS, and knowing about PMS.

Conclusion: A considerable number of students obtained good knowledge score about PMS, however, their actual knowledge of PMS experience might be 


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How to Cite

Mahmood KI. Premenstrual Syndrome: Presence, Knowledge, and Attitude among Female University Students. Erbil j. nurs. midwifery [Internet]. 2023 May 30 [cited 2024 May 18];6(1):54-6. Available from:



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