Home Health Care Services Delivered by Nurses to the Relatives with COVID-19


  • Newroz Ghazi Aziz Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University and Faculty of Nursing, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq.




COVID-19, Pandemic, Home health care, Nursing care


Background and objective: Kurdish community have a long-standing history of looking after family members and loved one in times of sickness. Caring for COVID-19 patients at home is a huge responsibility and challenging. Despite fear of losing family members, relatives working in the health care system dedicated their time to care for their rela-tives affected by COVID-19. No studies have been done to investigate the care provided to the COVID-19 patients at home-setting by nurses. The purpose of this study is to investigate the health care services provided to COVID-19 patients at home-setting by nurses.
Methods: This study is a descriptive quantitative study with a sample size of seventy-four nurses. The nurses claimed that they looked after more than 180 patients at the home setting. The data was collected through an online questionnaire format prepared by the researcher after an extensive literature review and discussion with the nurses who provided home care to COVID-19 patients. The researcher also utilized the guidelines and data published on the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) websites for constructing the tool. Data was collected through Google Forms from 1st January 2022 to 29th March 2022.
Results: Of the seventy-four nurses that completed the questionnaire, half held a bachelor’s degree in nursing. The nurses reported caring for more than 180 patients in total with 37.8% of nurses caring for one patient. More than half (52.7%) of patients were aged 50-64 years. The results of the study showed that the home care included health assessment, nursing intervention, evaluation, reassessment, and practicing preventive measures.
Conclusion: Depending on the data received from the nurses, COVID-19 patients in home setting received holistic nursing care and patients were under close and constant monitoring.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Newroz Ghazi Aziz, Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University and Faculty of Nursing, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq.




National Institutes of Health. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment guide-lines. Available at https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/. [Accessed: 10th December 2021].

Kurdistan Regional Government 2020. Coro-na virus (COVID-19) outbrak. Available at https://coronavirus-covid-19-iraq-atlasgis.hub.arcgis.com/ [Accessed: 12th April 2022].

Lami F, Rashak HA, Khaleel HA, Mahdi SG, Adnan F, Khader YS,. Iraq experience in han-dling the COVID-19 pandemic: implications of public health challenges and lessons learned for future epidemic preparedness planning. Journal of Public Health. 2021. 43(3):iii19-28. Available from:https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdab369 [Accessed: 10 August 2022]

John Calabres. Iraq’s Fragile State in the Time of Covid-19. MEI. December 8, 2020. Available at: https://www.mei.edu/publications/iraqs-fragile-state-time-covid-19#_ednref36 [ Acceded: 12 August 2022]

Sama SR, Quinn MM, Galligan CJ. Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Home Health and Home Care Agency Managers, Clients, and Aides: A Cross-Sectional Survey, March to June, 2020. Home Health Care Manage-ment & Practice. 2021;33(2):125-29. Availa-ble at:doi:10.1177/1084822320980415 [ Acceded: 08 August 2022]

World Health Organization (WHO) 2020. WHO Announces COVID-19 Outbreak a Pandemic. Available at (http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid-19/news/news/2020/3/who-announces-covid-19-outbreak-a-pandemic). [Accessed 20-March 2022]

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html [Accessed: 12 April 2022]

21 WHO. COVID-19 Dynamic Infographic Dashboard for Iraq [Internet] Iraq: World Health Organization, Iraq Country Office, 2020[cited 6 August 2020] Available from: https://app.powerbi.com/view?r=eyJrIjoiNjljMDhiYmItZTlhMS00MDlhLTg3MjItMDNmM2FhNzE5NmM4IiwidC I6ImY2MTBjMGI3LWJkMjQtNGIzOS04MTBiLTNkYzI4MGFmYjU5MCIsImMiOjh9.

Ahmad FB, Cisewski JA, Miniño A, Anderson RN. Provisional Mortality Data — United States, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly report 2021;70:519–522. Available from: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7014e1. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7014e1.htm?s_cid=mm7014e1_w [Accessed: 02 January 2022].

Pennington AF, Kompaniyets L, Summers AD, Danielson ML, Goodman AB, Chevinsky JR, et al. Risk of Clinical Severity by Age and Race/Ethnicity Among Adults Hospitalized for COVID-19—United States, March–September 2020, Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2021; 8 (2). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa638external icon. [Accessed: 12 March 2022]

Azevedo RB, Botelho BG, Hollanda JVG, Fer-reira LVL, Junqueira de Andrade LZ, Oei SSML, et al. Covid-19 and the cardiovascular system: a comprehensive review. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2021 Jan;35(1):4-11. Available from doi: 10.1038/s41371-020-0387-4. Epub 2020 Jul 27. PMID: 32719447; PMCID: PMC7384729. [Accessed: 01 January 2022]

Kompaniyets L, Pennington AF, Goodman AB, Rosenblum HG, Belay B, Ko JY. Underlying Medical Conditions and Severe Illness Among 540,667 Adults Hospitalized With COVID-19, March 2020–March 2021. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2021; 18(123). Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2021/21_0123.htm. [Accessed: 10 Feb-ruary 2022]

Harrison SL, Fazio-Eynullayeva E, Lane DA, Underhill P, Lip GYH. Comorbidities associated with mortality in 31,461 adults with COVID-19 in the United States: A federated electronic medical record analysis. PLoS Medicine. 2020; 17(9): e1003321. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003321. [Accessed: 13 February 2022]

Gandhi RT, Lynch JB, Del Rio C. Mild or mod-erate Covid-19. New England Journal of Medi-cine. 2020 Oct 29;383(18):1757-66. Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmcp2009249 . [Accessed: 12 December 2021]

[15]Cordero A, García-Gallego CS, Bertomeu-González V, Fácila L, Rodríguez-Mañero M, Escribano D, Castellano JM, et al. Mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in pa-tients with COVID-19. REC: Cardio Clinics. 2021 Jan 1;56(1):30-8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rccl.2020.10.005. [Accessed: 12 December 2021]

Tharakan, S., Nomoto, K., Miyashita, S. Kiyotake Ishikawa. Body temperature cor-relates with mortality in COVID-19 pa-tients. Critical Care. 2020; 24 (298). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03045-8. [Accessed: 12 January 2022]

Liu X, Yue X, Liu F, Wei L, Chu Y, Bao H, et al. Analysis of clinical features and early warn-ing signs in patients with severe COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study. Plos one. 2020 Jun 26;15(6):e0235459. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235459 . [Accessed: 12 Janu-ary 2022]

Cabin W. Pre-existing inequality: the impact of COVID-19 on Medicare home health ben-eficiaries. Home Health Care Management & Practice. 2021 May;33(2):130-6. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1084822321992380 [Accessed: 10 August 2022]

Gök A. Examination of Home Quarantine Experiences of Individuals Diagnosed With COVID-19 Living in Turkey. Home Health Care Management & Practice. 2022; 34(3) 229-236. Available at:https://doi.org/10.1177/10848223211073896 [ Ac-ceded: 08 August 2022]

Oppenauer, C., Burghardt, J., Kaiser, E., Riffer, F., & Sprung, M. Psychological Dis-tress During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Pa-tients with Mental or Physical Diseas-es. Frontiers in Psychology. 2021; 12(703488). Available from: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.703488. [Accessed: 12 April 2022]

Shah, M. M., Abbas, S., Khan, J. Z., Iftikhar, M., Jamal, A., Zeb Khan, J., et al. Psychologi-cal and Clinical Predictors of COVID-19 Se-verity and Outcomes. Cureus. 2021; 13(11), e19458. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.19458. [Accessed: 12 January 2022]

Li W, Yang Y, Liu ZH, Zhao YJ, Zhang Q, Zhang L, et al. Progression of mental health ser-vices during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. International journal of biological sciences. 2020;16(10):1732. Available from: doi: 10.7150/ijbs.45120. [Accessed: 01 April 2022]

Darweesh O, Abdulrazzaq GM, Al-Zidan RN, Bebane P, Merkhan M, Aldabbagh R, AlOmari N. Evaluation of the Pharmacologic Treatment of COVID-19 Pandemic in Iraq.Current Pharmacology Reports. 2021 Sep;7(4):171-8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40495-021-00262-9. [Accessed: 15 August 2022]

Nicola M, O'Neill N, Sohrabi C, Khan M, Agha M, Agha R. Evidence based management guideline for the COVID-19 pandemic-Review article. International Journal of Surgery. 2020; 77(1) 206-16. Avialable from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.001. [Accessed: 01 April 2022]

Labrague LJ, de Los Santos JA, Fronda DC. Factors associated with missed nursing care and nurse‐assessed quality of care during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Journal of nursing man-agement. 2022; 30(1):62-70. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13483. [Accessed: 01 May 2022]

Darweesh, O., Abdulrazzaq, G.M., Al-Zidan, R.N. et al. Evaluation of the Pharmacologic Treatment of COVID-19 Pandemic in Iraq. Curr Pharmacol Rep 7, 171–178 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40495-021-00262-9




How to Cite

Aziz NG. Home Health Care Services Delivered by Nurses to the Relatives with COVID-19. Erbil j. nurs. midwifery [Internet]. 2022 Nov. 30 [cited 2023 Mar. 25];5(2):86-97. Available from: https://ejnm.hmu.edu.krd/index.php/ejnm/article/view/187



Original Articles