Mothers’ Awareness Regarding Home Care Management of a Preterm Baby at the Rapareen Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Erbil City


  • Chawarwan Saleem Abdullah Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Shukir Saleem Hassan Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.



Preterm babies, Mothers, Homecare, Awareness, Rapareen, Erbil


Background and objectives: Preterm birth is a global health issue that occurs in every country. Every year, 15 million preterm infants are born worldwide, and one out of ten is a preterm infant. Sixty percent of preterm infants are born in developing countries. This study aimed to assess mothers' awareness regarding home care management of a preterm baby at the Rapareen Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Erbil in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.
Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the Rapareen Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Erbil from the 7th of Oc-tober 2018 to the 15th of October 2019. A purposive, non-probability sampling technique was used, and 130 mothers were respectively recruited to the study. A questionnaire was developed by the researcher and the research data were collected by direct, face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistics in the form of frequencies, percentages, and interferential chi-square test were used to analyze the data.
Results: More than half (53.8%) of the mothers were 25-33 years old and the majority (77.7%) of them were housewives. The main finding of the study is that most mothers had a neutral level of awareness regarding thermoregulation, breastfeeding, vaccinations, and recognizing danger signs. At the same time, most of the mothers were not aware of the infection prevention, and there was a very high, statistically significant association between mothers' awareness regarding thermoregulation and occupation and a type of family. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant association between the mothers' awareness regarding breastfeeding and their residency and a type of delivery, and a statistically significant association between the mothers' awareness regarding infection prevention and their occupation and economic status. Finally, there was a statistically significant association between the mothers' awareness of vaccinations and their age and the type of delivery...


Metrics Loading ...


[1] World Health Organization. Preterm birth. WHO Headquarters in Geneva.2018. Available from:
[2] Blencowe H, Cousens S, Oestergaard MZ, Chou D, Moller AB, NarwalR, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications. The lancet. 2012. 379(9832), pp.2162-2172. Available from
[3] Lawn JE, Davidge R, Paul VK, von Xylander S, de Graft Johnson J, Costello Aet al. Born too soon: care for the preterm baby. Reproductive health. 2013; 10(1): S5. Available from: http://www.reproductive-healt
[4] World Health Organization. Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth. March of Dimes, partnership for maternal, newborn, child health. Save the Chil-dren.2012. Available from:
[5] Mohsenzadeh A, Saket S, Karimi A. Prevalence of Preterm Neonates and Risk Factors. Iranian Journal of Neonatology. 2011; 2(2). Available from:
[6] Offiah I, O’Donoghue K, Kenny L. Clinical risk factors for preterm birth. Preterm Birth-Mother and Child. 1st ed. InTech. 2012:73-94.Available from:
[7] Lawan JE, Kerber K, Enweronu-Laryea C, Cousens S. 3.6 Million Neonatal Deaths—What Is Progressing and What Is Not?. Seminars in perinatology.2010; 34(6): 371-86. Available from:
[8] Shreena. The complications in Premature Deliveries. Journal of Nursing and Health Science. 2016;2(3). Available from:
[9] Newnham JP, Dickinson JE, Hart RJ, Pennell CE, Arrese CA, Keelan JA. Strategies to pre-vent preterm birth. Frontiers in Immunology. 2014; 5(584). Available from:
[10] Hochenberry, MJ and Wilson D. Wongs Essential of Pediatric Nursing, 9th edition, United State of America, Mosby.2013; p: 596-597
[11] Lawn JE, Davidge R, Paul VK, von Xylander S, de Graft Johnson J, Costello A, Kinney MV, Segre J, Molyneux L. Born too soon: care for the preterm baby. Reproductive health. 2013 Nov;10 (1): S5. Available from:
[12] Raffray M, Semenic S, Osorio Galeano S, Ochoa Marín SC. Barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal unit. Perceptions of health care providers. Investigation education en enfermeria. 2014 Dec;32(3):379-92. Available from:
[13] Gul R, Noreen S, Memon AH, Ullah A, Ali HU, Khan AZ. Factors determining the consequences of prematurity in a teaching hospital. Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry. 2018; 8(2). Available from:
[14] Abbasi-Shavazi M, Sadeghian H, NooriShad-kam M, Askarishahi M. Perceived Benefits and Barriers of Mothers with Premature Infant to Kangaroo Mother Care. International Journal of Pediatrics. 2019; 7(4), pp.9237-9248. Available from:
[15] Ahmed AH. Breastfeeding preterm infants: An educational program to support mothers of preterm infants in Cairo, Egypt. Pediatric Nursing. 2007; 34(2), p.125. Available from:
[16] Roba AA, Binoy S, Naganuri MA. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Kangaroo Mother Care by Postnatal Mothers who Gave Birth to Preterm and Low Birth Weight Babies in Public Hospitals, Eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Neonatal Biology. 2017; 6(3): 264. Available from:
[17] Çelen R and Arslan FT. The anxiety levels of the parents of premature infants and related factors. The Journal of Pediatric Research. 2017; 4(2), p.68. Available from:
[18] Abdel-Latif, M.E, Bajuk B, Oei J, Vincent T, Sutton, Lui K. Does rural or urban residency make a difference to the neonatal outcome in premature birth? A regional study in Australia. Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 2006; 91(4), pp.F251-F256.Available from: https://www.researchgate.netpublication/7345215_Does_rural_or_urban_residency_make_a_difference_to_neonatal_outcome_in_premature_birth_A_regional_study_in_Australia
[19] Nepal S and Thapa S. Knowledge and Prac-tice of Newborn Care among Mothers of Infants in Kavrepalanchok District. International Annals of Medicine. 2017; 1(4). Available from: a3f38cf346704167397861713d223ee97766.pdf
[20] Castalino F, Nayak BS and D'Souza A. Knowledge and practices of postnatal moth-ers on newborn care in Tertiary care hospital of Udupi District. Nitte University Journal of Health Science. 2014;4(2), p.98. Available from:
[21] Khatun S and Rahman M. Socio-economic determinants of low birth weight In Bangladesh: a multivariate approach. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin. 2008; 34(3), pp.81-86. Available from:
[22] Akbarian, M., Dashti, F. and Baraz, S, The Effect of Phone Counseling for Mothers of Premature Infants Discharged from the Hospital on Infants’ Readmission. International Journal of Pediatrics. 2017; 5(8), pp.5441-5450.Available from:
[23] Malathi K. Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge Regarding Measures of Thermoregulation in Newborn among Postnatal Mothers. Ameri-can International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences. 2015; 11(1).64-68. Available from:
[24] Meseka, LA, Mungai, LW and Musoke, R. Mothers’ knowledge on essential newborn care at Juba Teaching Hospital, South Su-dan. South Sudan Medical Journal. 2017; 10(3), pp.56-59. Available
[25] Panda S, Majhi B, Panda A. Knowledge Regarding Prevention Of Hypothermia Among Mothers Of Lbw Neonates In Sncu Of MKCG Medical College Hospital. Journal of evidence-based medicine and health care. 2017;4(86):5054-7. Available from:
[26] Vijayalakshmi P, Susheela T, Mythili D. Knowledge, attitudes, and breastfeeding practices of postnatal mothers: A cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Health Sciences, Qassim University. 2015; 9(4).Available from:
[27] Jamil M, Khanum A, Omer MT, Hamid MH. Knowledge, Attitude and Breastfeeding practices of Mothers of Infants: An Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Lahore. Proceedings SZPGMI Vol. 2018;32(3):1-7. Available from:
[28] Abdel Aziz SB, Marcel B, Franck G, Zeynab K, Soumaila C, Joseph CD then et al. Knowledge, Opinions and Attitudes of Moth-ers About Breastfeeding and Child Feeding in Rural Areas of Burkina Faso: A Study in Ouargaye’s District Health Facilities. Journal of Family Medicine and Health Care. 2018; 4(3), pp.13-19. Available from:
[29] Amolo L, IrimuG, Njai D. Knowledge of post-natal mothers on essential newborn care practices at the Kenyatta National Hospital: a cross-sectional study. Pan African Medical Journal. 2017; 28(1), p.159. Available from:
[30] Khalesi N, Anjom, FS, Rezaeiezadeh G, Farahani Z. Evaluation of Parents’ Awareness and Knowledge about Problems and Issues Relat-ed to Their Premature Infants in an Iranian Hospital. Open Journal of Nursing. 2015; 5, 465-469. Available from:
[31] Adefolalu OA, Kanma-Okafor OJ, Balogun MR. Maternal knowledge, attitude and compliance regarding immunization of under-five children in Primary Health Care centres in Ikorodu Local Government Area, Lagos State. Journal of Clinical Sciences. 2019; 16(1), p.7. Available from:
[32] Bofarraj MA. Knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding immunization of infants and preschool children at Al-Beida City, Libya 2008. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology .2011; 9(1). Available from:
[33] Jose MJ, Lobo MMR, Nisha K, GS MS, Uma-rani J. Awareness on immunization among mothers of under-five children. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development (ISSN 2278–0211). 2013; 2(6).Available from:
[34] Anmut W, Fekecha B, Demeke T. Mother’s knowledge and Practice About Neonatal Danger Signs and Associated Factors in Wolkite Town, Gurage Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia, 2017. Journal o Biomedical Sciences. 2017; 6(4), p.33. Available from:
[35] Adem N, Berhe KK, Tesfay Y. Awareness and Associated Factors towards Neonatal Dan-ger Signs among Mothers Attending Public Health Institutions of Mekelle City, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2015. Journal of Child Adolesc Behav. 2017; 5(6). Available from:
[36] Ekwochi U, Ndu IK, Osuorah CD, Amadi OF, Okeke IB, Obuoha E, et al. Knowledge of danger signs in newborns and health-seeking practices of mothers and caregivers in Enugu state, South-East Nigeria. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 2015; 41(1), p.18. Available from:
[37] Jemberia MM, Berhe ET, Mirkena HB, Gishen DM, TegegneAE, Reta MA. Low level of knowledge about neonatal danger signs and its associated factors among postnatal mothers attending at Woldia general hospital, Ethiopia. Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology. 2018; 4(5), p.5. Available from:
[38] Prabhakaran H. Enhancing maternal knowledge in improving the lives of low birth weight babies. Journal of Nursing and Health Science. 2015; 4(4).pp: 71-77. Available from:
[39] Yamane T (1967). Statistics, An introductory analysis, 2nd Ed. New York: Harper and Row.




How to Cite

Abdullah CS, Hassan SS. Mothers’ Awareness Regarding Home Care Management of a Preterm Baby at the Rapareen Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Erbil City. Erbil j. nurs. midwifery [Internet]. 2019 Nov. 30 [cited 2024 Jul. 18];2(2):163-79. Available from:



Original Articles